Information is an inherent characteristic of matter and its motion. To understand the cosmos and discover the laws of nature through the information that nature reveals will always be the pursuit of science. Because of the rise of modern information science and technology, it is now possible to acquire nature's information in unprecedented ways beyond the physiological limitations of our sensory organs and nervous system. The historical processes and major features of each stage that mankind underwent to acquire natural information are reviewed. The significance of information for the development of natural science is presented. Some of the most prominent activities in the search for scientific information are described in brief, and their possible implications discussed.