Lithium was introduced into the battery field in the 1950s due to its very high energy density. The first lithium batteries were developed in the 1970s, then rechargeable metal lithium batteries, Li-ion batteries, and polymer lithium batteries were successively developed. Since 1990 the latter two types have been commercialized successfully based on the invention of new cathode, anode and electrolyte materials. Lithium battery technologies are still being developed and will continue to improve the quality of our lives. This paper gives a brief introduction to the history of lithium batteries over the last 40 years.